PAGE STATUS: This is a dumping ground that has never once been edited. Almost all of the ideas are under development and the research for this page is woefully inadequate. In short, these are my notes on a subject I have yet to thoroughly study. This is about to change now that I have finally found the true significance of the number 13 and the Ophiuchus constellation.
LAST UPDATE: September 3, 2020
The Zodiac is a record of what routinely happens during our
25621.488-year binary dance with the Sirius star system.
What is the Zodiac?
Does the Zodiac record the movement of the Sun through the constellations on a yearly basis, or is it a record of what happens to this planet in our Solar System’s 26,000-year binary dance with the Sirius star system? More to the point, does Aquarius “the water bearer” signify spring rains or a once-every-26,000 year weakening in the Sun accompanied by a huge increase in galactic cosmic rays that brings massive, worldwide floods as are happening even now? I believe it is the latter.
NEW VIDEO DATES THE ZODIAC
Previous Axial Tilts and the Zodiac
CUT N’ PASTE
How did the ancients survive previous axial tilts long enough to observe cyclic destructions and encode their knowledge into the Zodiac. Only astute readers would ask this question. First off, the ice core temperature records suggest that the polar configuration was stable for over 400,000 years, but this does not preclude axial tilts. However, the evidence for all previous axial tilts suggest that they were of a different character, all previous North Poles being more or less at the same latitude. It is my contention that the last axial tilt was spectacular because it was caused by the explosion of Proto-Saturn. The existence of the Zodiac itself suggest that “normal” axial tilts are more survivable.
But there is a more subtle issue at stake here. For the Zodiac to function as a clock would require that it was somehow reset after the last major catastrophe, that is to say the last axial tilt which occurred sometime around 3147 BC and 3106 BC when Proto-Saturn exploded (I defend the use of the word “explode” in _____.) This is the event popularly known as “Noah’s flood.” The level of destruction then was perhaps second only to whatever happened in 9500 BC, so it is highly likely that existing Zodiacs. The oldest surviving one
Cut from the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar pages….
BE VERY CAREFUL. THIS ARGUMENT IS WRONG. IF SIRIUS IS DOING THE TUGGING, NO MATTER WHAT HAPPENS DURING A PLANETARY CATASTROPHE, WHEN IT IS OVER, THE TILT WILL STILL BE IN THE DIRECTION OF SIRIUS. THUS THE ZODIAC IS RELIABLE.
REVIEW THE FOLLOWING YOUTUBE FOR BIBLICAL QUOTES WHICH SUGGEST JUST THIS–THAT THE ZODIAC IS A RELIABEL TIMEPIECE
The Zodiac as a Unit of Time Measurement
Many people imagine that the ancients used the constellations, which I will refer to here as the Zodiac, as a unit of time measurement for vast periods of time. If you are trying to date when the Sphinx was built, such a timepiece may be useful. But for something as exact as the end of the Modern Maximum to within a month, which is what the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar clearly achieved, using the Zodiac is very problematic for the simple reason that the inner solar system is inherently unstable. Changes in the orbital period of Earth and axial tilts cause slight variations in the precise location of the rising (or setting) Sun on the vernal equinox. Using a clock analogy, the hour hand may be reliable using the Zodiac, but the minute hand could be easily broken. How then could the ancients reliably measure time over thousands of years?
12, 30 and 360 (The Zodiac)
The Zodiac is a collection of 12 constellations known since antiquity, each of which is more or less centered on the ecliptic and occupies approximately 30° of that 360° imaginary circle in the night sky. This is a duodecimal system of 12 constellations projected against the background of 12 30° segments of a circle.
If each house of the Zodiac represents 12 178.7 year solar cycles, then there are 12 × 12 = 144 178.7 solar cycles in the Zodiac. This is the same number of 178.7 year solar cycles in Mayan Long Count calendar.
This means each house of the Zodiac represents
- 9,360,000 ÷ 12 = 780,000 days or
- 780,000 ÷ 365.242 = 2135.570388947602 years
Now of course the Zodiac equals the Mayan Long Count calendar:
2135.570388947602 × 12 = 25626.84466737122
It is tempting to multiply 178.7 × 12, but we did not get here using the year value of the 178.7 year solar cycle, and using it now would be a mistake for the same reason.
Is 144 178.7 year solar cycles in the Mayan Long Count calendar and the fact that the Zodiac is a duodecimal system sufficient enough to make this leap? If not, the next section does provide sufficient reason.
25,920 is a Modern Fiction
The number 2160 is given for the duration of an astrological age in countless articles, webpages, and books, always leading to the conclusion that the Zodiac represents a period of 25,920 years (or 12 x 2160). Yet the number 25,920 is not found in ancient texts, and the current NASA estimate for axial precession is 25,800 years. In short, 25,920 is an modern invention with no significance to the ancients, and there is no scientific reason to believe it has any modern, astronomical significance either.
Here it is interesting to note that the article on Astrological Ages includes the following citation as evidence that the Zodiac represents a period of 25,920 years:
- Billy Meier’s Contact Report 9, sentence № 186.
The main page of this website is entitled “The Future Of Mankind” and begins with this paragraph:
- “Welcome to the Future Of Mankind, the largest English-language resource for information primarily produced by Billy Meier, contactee of the Plejaren Federation and founder of FIGU.”
FIGU is “a German acronym that stands for Free Community of Interests for the Border and Spiritual Sciences and Ufological Studies.” Sentence № 186 from the above reference is quoted here:
- “The origin of this epochal change is in the radiation effect of the huge central sun around which your system circles once in 25,860 years and passes through 12 epochs within the meaning of your astrologer’s Zodiacs.”
Not only is the source of this citation highly questionable, it references the number 25,860, which is substantially different from the number 25,920 it is supposed to support (not a multiple of 2160).
Plato’s Great Year
Why Mankind has No Memory
An answer to the most important and profound question of the age can be found on this page. The childish and myopic Big Bang Theory is dead. Leaving aside metaphysics and my own religion Christian Science, rational human beings should assume the physical universe is both infinite and eternal.
Why then do human beings have no memory?
There is only one reasonable answer to this question of the ages; the cyclic destruction of the earth. Furthermore, we must assume this has been happening for countless eons. Is it happening everywhere? No. We are surely not the only solar system too close to a giant star, but we are clearly the exception because ET is in our ancient texts, arguably in the Bible, in paintings that are only a few hundred years old, and pervasive in modern society. The thought that we are the only intelligent species in the universe is a morbid sickness of minds intolerably small in their thinking. ET is real. For ET to be here implies travel beyond the speed of light. And that implies countless thousands, millions, or hundreds of millions of years of intellectual growth in the sciences. Beyond all of this well-known evidence, I have personally met them and experienced their capabilities firsthand. The totality of the experience is not something that can be readily expressed, but I assure you they are so far in advance of us that I personally do not doubt for a minute that this planet is fundamentally flawed. We must get off of it. Doing so is imperative for our survival as a species. As the saying goes; it’s a nice place to visit, but I wouldn’t want to live there. Apparently, the elongated skulls felt the same way.
Here I must pose a second, equally important and profound question. What if the megalithic works are not our own. What if this is the furthest we have ever advanced and the megalithic works from the Great Pyramid of Giza to Cusco belong to the elongated skulls and other species who have visited the planet in the past. What if the period of time intellectual growth between these devastations is never enough for us to achieve much more than an industrialized state.
Recurring planetary catastrophes encoded into the design of the Zodiac must span at least 39,000 years
Main article: Page № 39. The Zodiac
See also “THE ZODIAC AND ITS ANTIQUITY” (The Secret Doctrine , Vol. 1, Page 647 ASTROLOGY A SCIENCE by H. P. Blavatsky) from the Sacred Texts website
How long has mankind inhabited this planet? Are we as a species thousands or millions of years old?
For the ancients to have dated cyclic destructions using the Zodiac would require observing this cycle many times, at the very least three, twice to establish the pattern and the third time for confirmation. Three times 26,000 is 78,000 years of close observation.
Based on the work of Paul LaViolette and the fact that his last major event is dead center in the Maya Long Count, I am now inclined to think whatever is happening is occurring twice in every Great Year, which means the 78,000 can be halved to 39,000 years for a minimum of three observations.
Is there any proof that mankind is this old?
- 5.2 million year old human like footprints in Greece
- Out of Place in Time: Was This Hammer Made 100 Million Years Ago?
- Why Archaic Humans in Israel Collected Feathers 420,000 Years Ago
Jupiter is the minute hand on a celestial doomsday clock
Jupiter is the timepiece of the ancients
On this page, I will explain that the actual units of time measurement used in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar are orbits of Jupiter and what we call Jose Solar Cycles (the basic movement of the sun around the solar system barycenter). The duration of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is actually 2160 orbits of Jupiter or 144 Jose Solar Cycles. Jupiter’s orbit is equal to 11.8618 Earth years. This is the number I use for all of the calculations on this website. The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar end date is December 16, 2018.
If you know anything about the history of our solar system, then it is inherently insane to think that the designers of this calendar would rely on either the rotation of the Earth around its axis or the orbital period of Earth around the Sun to measure vast periods of time.
The Basic Units of Measurement Used
What is the basic unit of time used in the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar? On the surface, it appears the designers of the calendar decided on days because a baktun consists of 144,000 days (which is 400 years in a 360 day calendar), but this calendar encodes some of the most guarded information in the history of mankind. Nothing is on the surface. The main problem is that, as a unit of time, days are too small. You would not measure a football field in inches, so why would you measure a Great Cycle (5124.2976 years) in days? Using too small a unit of time compounds errors. This is a critical point. See Days as a Unit of Time for a more detailed discussion of this subject.
And using the orbital period of the rocky planets in the inner solar system as units of time was out of the question for the ancients. They knew both Venus and Mars long before they assumed their current orbits. First there was the comet Venus bumping against Earth’s magnetosphere in what is recorded in the Old Testament as the Exodus. Then on February 26th, 747 BC Mars bumped against Earth’s magnetosphere and very substantially changed the length of a year. This is precisely why the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar did not use years as a unit of time. The ancients knew (as we never could) that nothing in the inner solar system is a reliable timepiece over vast periods of time.
Before anyone could fully understand the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar or grasp the anti-cipher discussed in the next section, there awaited the discovery of the actual unit of time used in this calendar, which is orbits of Jupiter as discussed in The Timepiece of the Ancients is Jupiter. There are 2160 orbits of Jupiter in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Each Great Cycle consists of 432 orbits of Jupiter. For me this was just the beginning. Only the opening scene from Raiders of the Lost Ark when Harrison Ford is “running a booby-trapped gauntlet (complete with an over-sized rolling boulder) to fetch a solid-gold idol” can describe what followed because the actual end date was further obfuscated at the calendar’s inception.
Days as a Unit of Time Measurement
On the surface of things, it would appear that the designers of the calendars decided on days, or the rotation of the Earth around its axis, as the basic unit of time measurement. There are 144,000 days in a Baktun. This avoids the problem of a change in Earth’s orbital period (discussed below), but is highly problematic. The main problem is that as a unit of measurement, it is too small. You would not measure a football field in inches, so why would you measure a Great Cycle or Age in days? Using too small a unit of measurement compounds errors. The are stellar or sidereal days (the time it takes for Earth to complete one rotation with respect to the stars), solar days (the time it takes for Earth to complete one rotation with respect to our Sun), and civil days (86,400 seconds). The difference can be as much as four minutes, which over thousands of years is significant. In fact, over one “Great Cycle” or “Age” the difference is (13 Baktuns x 144,000) 1,872,000 “days” times a four minute difference for each day is 7,488,000 minutes, which is (7,488,000 ÷ 60) 124,800 hours or (124,800 ÷ 24) 5,200 “days,” which is more than (5200 ÷ 365.25) 14 years.
It is inherently insane to think that the designers of this calendar would rely on either the rotation of the Earth around its axis or the orbital period of Earth around the Sun to measure vast periods of time.
Is the choice between stellar or sidereal days, solar, or civil days an obvious one? I don’t think so. Stellar or sidereal measurements are arguably the most ancient. Solar is the most logical. Civil involves the sacred number 864. Would the ancients take such a chance with the most sacred knowledge of all time? Would they not find a more reliable timepiece with which to measure such vast periods of time?
Years as a Unit of Time Measurement
The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar does not use years as a unit of time measurement and for good reason. As a unit of measurement, Earth’s orbital period is unreliable. According to Jno Cook, who is surpassed only by David Talbott in advancing the work of Immanuel Velikovsky, in an update of “Chapter 23: Destructions by Mars” in his remarkable work Recovering the Lost World, “Mars caused a disturbance of the Earth’s orbit on February 26th, 747 BC,” changing the length of a year from 360 to 365.25 days. The designers of this calendar therefore most certainly knew that the orbital period of the Earth around the Sun was unreliable. They also knew that Venus and Mars were comets long before they settled down into their current planetary orbital paths. The simple fact of the matter is that they undoubtedly knew, certainly more so than we do, that the inner solar system consisting of the rocky planets is inherently unstable.
Over the millennia the length of a year varies, considerably more so than modern, mainstream science thinks. And there is proof of this. See Carl Munck and The Length of a Mayan Year below for further discussion.
Cut from somewhere else…
The designers included what I call an “anti-cipher” though, so that one could be sure the actual unit of measurement is the orbital period of Jupiter, which for us is 11.8618 years. I do not mean to suggest that the orbital period of Jupiter has changed since the calendar was designed, but the length of a year most certainly has changed since then. This is a critical point.
Jupiter is the Timepiece of the Ancients
There is only one timepiece in our solar system that is both reliable and easy to use. This is Jupiter. It is of paramount importance that you fully grasp why Jupiter is the most reliable timepiece in the solar system. For starters, it is a very visible planet. Its orbital period can be easily calculated. But more importantly, it has a long orbital period of 11.8618 years, which can be reduced to a measurement of one orbit of Jupiter irrespective to the length of time on Earth. There are 2160 orbits of Jupiter in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Right now NASA calculates Jupiter’s orbits as 11.8618 years. Back when the calendar was designed, the precise measurement of Jupiter’s orbit in years may have been different, but the length of time that represents most assuredly has not changed. I’ll get back to the reasons why Jupiter’s orbit is so stable in a minute, but for now let’s make some comparisons.
If the Mayan year was 365.020081 days as suggested by Carl Munck (as just one example of many of a different measurement for the length of Earth’s orbital period), 2160 orbits of Jupiter would be 25,637 years instead of the 25,621 computed using the current length of a year, which is 365.2422 days. That is a difference of 16 years, but this is a matter of perspective. The actual length of time under discussion is the same. It is 2160 orbits of Jupiter. The error only becomes manifest if you translate the time of Jupiter’s orbit into years, which the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar does not do. The orbital period of Jupiter does not change in these equations, only how it is expressed in years. This is just another example of why the calendar does not use years.
You can be sure that the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar were way too smart to use anything other than Jupiter as their timepiece. The information they were conveying down through the ages ws too important to use anything else, certainly not days. Jupiter was the first planet to breakaway from the polar configuration and therefore most likely to have been the first to obtain a stable solo orbit around the Sun. It also has twice the mass of all the other planets combined. For these two reason the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar chose it to be their timepiece.
The All-Seeing “Eye of Providence” is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter
If the timepiece of the ancients is Jupiter, it is counting down the years until the next axial tilt.
Many names, same concept: knowledge is power and Jupiter is counting down the years until the axial tilt.
Amen, used at the end of a prayer in Hebrew and in European languages that borrowed it from Hebrew, was the name of the Egyptian deity Jupiter. It is part of the names of many Egyptian kings—Amenhotep, Tutankhamen; of the same root is amen—“to believe.” It is beyond the scope of this work to find which of the words—as the name of the deity or as a word in vocabulary, precede, and which is derived.
The Sun was termed by the Greeks the Eye of Jupiter, and the Eye of the World; and his is the All-Seeing Eye in our Lodges…The Blazing Star in our Lodges… represents Sirius — Albert Pike, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite‘s Southern Jurisdiction
Jupiter was the first planet to break away from the polar configuration. After Proto-Saturn exploded, it was by far also the largest planet in the solar system. It has the most stable orbit in the solar system other than the Sun’s orbit around the solar system barycenter (more on this in a moment). I do not care what others think or say on this subject. The Eye of Jupiter is counting down the years until the next axial tilt. It was called the “All-Seeing Eye” in Vedic hymns a thousand years older than Christianity. And it is the Eye of Horas. Jove, Zeus, Amon, Marduk, Shiva, call it what you want, but the planet Jupiter is King of the Gods in part because it is the timepiece of the ancients.
The ancients knew orbits of Jupiter would be a reliable timepiece down through the ages, but disclosing this fact would violate the immensely important rule that a precise knowledge of the end time is and must forever remain a highly guarded secret. Days were the most reliable unit of time left to them. They also provided a very subtle anti-cipher as discussed in the next section. Hence, a baktun is 144,000 days.
From the Pyramid Texts (§ 1806)
O Osiris the King, the gods have knit together your face for you and Horus has given you his Eye, that you may see with it.
And now that you know the truth, allow me to repeat what I said at the start of this page. Welcome back to a respect for the ancients. The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is indeed everything people thought it was prior to December 21, 2012. See also The Worship of Jupiter, The Worship of Saturn (both written by Immanuel Velikovsky), and Sacred Number 216.
IMPORTANT: Cut 59:10 to ~59:30 in “Remembering the End of the Last World” This is the original eye on the face of Proto-Saturn
also in he following at about 7:10
The Eye of Ra (Jno)
See also One Dollar Bill
Earth is Billions of Years Old
(stuff cut from elsewhere and pasted here…needs editing for relevance if nothing esle)
Earth is billions of years old, even if you believe in the Big Bang. I do not. I think the Big Bang, like nothing else can, shows that academia and mainstream science are mathematically insane. In his Appendix N: Age of the Universe, Jno Cook, an unusually well read man, takes an entirely novel approach to this subject involving the estimated time it would take for the Milky Way and other galaxies to form and the Fibonacci sequence of numbers found throughout nature. Using the most conservative estimates available for the formation of a typical galaxy, he calculates that the Milky Way is at least 24 billion years old and that the visible universe is at least 496 billion years old. He concludes by saying “…there are plenty of people who believe the Universe is infinite in size and infinite in age.” I am one of them.
With billions of years to develop, why do we think we just sprung up out of the dirt and started thinking for the first time? Why do we appear to be just starting when extraterrestrial species are clearly traveling faster than the speed of light. Were it not so, they would not bother visiting such a backwater planet. At 8.58 light years, travel from even nearby Sirius would require at the very least over a decade. Why then are we so primitive? And why do we have no memory as a species? Something must be profoundly wrong with our planet. Something keeps knocking us down every time we stand up and get started. If this is so, it quite possibly has been happening for millions of years. This would explain why ET is visiting us. We very well may be the galactic freak show. And what would be the cause of this? Why would our planet be defective? The obvious answer is that our solar system is parked too close to the gravitational behemoth Sirius, “the brightest star in the night sky.” This very well may explain the increase in UFO sightings. The audience is taking their seats and waiting for the curtain to rise for yet another catastrophic destruction of our planet. Like rebooting a computer, we begin over and over again, never remembering that we have done this countless times before. But this time someone remembers. There is a people who survived the last world catastrophe in underground cities. They are known to history as the Phrygians. Their descendants, what I call the progeny of Jove, are here now in the United States of America. They are trying to break us out of this cycle of destruction by garnering into new, highly advanced tunnel systems advanced technologies to jumpstart the new world. You may not approve of their methods, but when you consider what is at stake, you must at the very lest respect their objectives.
The evidence that highly intelligent civilizations existed in our remote past is overwhelming, not the least of which is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Beyond this, there is significant evidence of intelligent human life on this planet dating back millions of years. For me, the greatest evidence of this is the Zodiac. Does it record the movement of the Sun through the constellations on a yearly basis, or is it a record of what happens to this planet in its 26,000 year binary dance with the Sirius star system? More to the point, does Aquarius “the water bearer” signify spring rains or a once-every-26,000 year weakening in the Sun accompanied by a huge increase in galactic cosmic rays that brings massive, worldwide floods as are happening even now? I believe it is the latter. For the ancients to have documented the so-called “precession of the equinoxes” would require observing this cycle many times, at the very least three, twice to establish the pattern and the third time for confirmation. Three times 26,000 is 78,000 years of close observation. This is our true heritage, one that has been systematically hid from us as recently as the nineteenth century in the United States of America where hundreds of giant skeletons delivered to the Smithsonian Institution disappeared from the historical record. Those skeletons were us when earth was part of David Talbott’s Polar configuration. Inside of Proto-Saturn’s magnetosphere, our primordial sun, the gravity on our planet is estimated to have been as much as four times less what it is now by no less than Michael Armstrong, a founding member of the The Thunderbolts Project™. This lessor gravity made it possible for the dinosaurs (that could not stand up in today’s gravity) to exist. It also explains why we have back problems. We are not an alien race deposited on earth, as some have suggested to explain away our back problems. As a species, we are still adjusting to the new gravity. If the Polar configuration of the planets broke apart in 3147 BC as Jno Cook suggests, then in less than 5,200 years humans have shrunk from “giants” to at most six feet tall on average. Why was it so important to hide the giant skeletons unearthed all over North America? More importantly, who is doing the hiding? Who does not want us to know the truth about our past and why? I will attempt to answer this question in the remainder of this section.
Jove is Jupiter in ancient Roman religion and mythology. The full line of Virgil’s poem mentioned above is, “Dear child of gods, great progeny of Jove!” The gods of yore were the planets when they were much closer to earth and loomed large in the skies above our planet. This line from the Eclogues suggests that the Roman elite knew about the Polar configuration and that this knowledge defined who they were. And who are they? The progeny of Jove morph from one organizational entity to another and from one location to another in order to hide their true identity as they stealthily move through time ever closer to the coming axial tilt. In the Greco-Roman world, the progeny of Jove were the Pythagoreans, indistinguishable from the ancient Greek and Roman elite.
Selected Videos about the true Antiquity of Mankind
I am very selective of the videos on this website. If it’s here, it’s worth watching if you have any interest in the subject whatsoever.
How Are These Objects Possible, They Defy All Explanation! from the Matrix Wisdom Youtube channel
Is the house of history built on foundations of sand? | Graham Hancock | TEDxReading from the TEDx Talks YouTube channel
The Importance of the Aquila Constellation
This majestic looking bird of prey or raptor is an Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) from birdsoftheworld.org. This is not a common buzzard. It is the only large raptor known to use tools and to this very day migrates between Egypt and Greece.
WHAT FOLLOWS IS ABORTED WORK…
It is the only migrating vulture and migrates between Egypt and Greece. Its yearly migration from the Sahara Desert to the mountains of Greece symbolizes the connection between the progeny of Jove and Ancient Egypt. Interesting, when one of the children at the end of this video referred to the Egyptian vulture as “black and white,” I realized there could very easily be a connection between this fact and the black and white checkered floor of Freemason temples.
Even more interested in the next child in the video who refers to the Egyptian Vulture as
I liked this Quora answer from Alexin George for its simplicity:
What did the vulture represent in ancient Egypt?
The vulture was held sacred to Isis in ancient Egyptian religion. The use of the vulture as a symbol of royalty in Egyptian culture and their protection by Pharaonic law made the species common on the streets of Egypt and gave rise to the name “pharaoh’s chicken”
Picture Below: Egyptian Vulture
Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
In the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts. This process facilitates the publication of texts where the inclusion of photographs or drawings of an actual Egyptian document is impractical.
Transliteration is not the same as transcription. Transcription seeks to reproduce the pronunciation of a text. For example, the name of the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty is transliterated as ššnq but transcribed Shoshenq in English, Chéchanq in French, Sjesjonk in Dutch, and Scheschonk or Scheschonq in German.
Because exact details regarding the phonetics of Egyptian are not completely known, most transcriptions depend on Coptic for linguistic reconstruction or are theoretical in nature. Egyptologists, therefore, rely on transliteration in scientific publications.
Egyptological alef, ayin, and yod
Three characters that are specific to the discipline are required for transliterating Egyptian:
- Alef (, two Semitistic alephs, one set over the other (Lepsius); approximated by the digit ⟨3⟩ in ASCII);
Although three Egyptological and Ugariticist letters were proposed in August 2000, it was not until 2008 (Unicode 5.1) two of the three letters were encoded: aleph and ayin (minor and capital). Another two proposals were made regarding the Egyptological yod, the eventual result of which was to accept the use of the Cyrillic psili pneumata (U+0486 ◌҆ ) as one of several possible diacritics for this purpose. The other options use the superscript comma (U+0313) and the right half ring above (U+0357). A new attempt for a sign called LETTER I WITH SPIRITUS LENIS was made in 2017. Within the Egyptological community objection were raised concerning this name. The proposed name was changed to EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD before finally becoming GLOTTAL I. The sign was added in March 2019 with the release of Unicode 12.0. One of the first fonts that implemented the full set of signs is New Athena Unicode.
Before the usage of the above-mentioned Unicode signs, various workarounds were in practice, e.g.
|Middle English yogh||ȝ
Old World vulture
|Old World vultures|
|Lappet-faced vultures (left) and a white-backed vulture|
Old World vultures are vultures that are found in the Old World, i.e. the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, and which belong to the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, buzzards, kites, and hawks.
Old World vultures are not closely related to the superficially similar New World vultures and condors, and do not share that group’s good sense of smell. The similarities between the two groups of vultures are due to convergent evolution, rather than a close relationship. They were widespread in both the Old World and North America during the Neogene. Old World vultures are probably a polyphyletic group within Accipitridae, with the palm-nut vulture, Egyptian vulture and bearded vulture separate from the others. Most authorities refer to two major clades: Gypaetinae and Aegypiinae (Aegypius, Gyps, Sarcogyps, Torgos, Trigonoceps and possibly Necrosyrtes). The former seem to be nested with Perninae hawks, while the latter are closely related and possibly even synonymous with Aquilinae. Within Aegypiinae, Torgos, Aegypius, Sarcogyps and Trigonoceps are particularly closely related and possibly within the same genus. 
The Accipitridae, one of the three families within the order Accipitriformes (the others being Pandionidae and Sagittariidae), are a family of small to large birds with strongly hooked bills and variable morphology based on diet. They feed on a range of prey items from insects to medium-sized mammals, with a number feeding on carrion and a few feeding on fruit. The Accipitridae have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all the world’s continents (except Antarctica) and a number of oceanic island groups. Some species are migratory.
The senses of the Accipitridae are adapted to hunting (or scavenging), and in particular their vision is legendary. The sight of some hawks and eagles is up to 8 times better than that of humans. Large eyes with two fovea provide binocular vision and a “hawk eye” for movement and distance judging. In addition they have the largest pectens of any birds. The eyes are tube shaped and cannot move much in their sockets. In addition to excellent vision many species have excellent hearing, but unlike in owls sight is generally the principal sense used for hunting. Hearing may be used to locate prey hidden in vegetation, but sight is still used to catch the prey. Like most birds the Accipitridae generally have a poor sense of smell; even the Old World vultures make no use of the sense, in contrast to the New World vultures in the family Cathartidae.
“Eagles” are several raptors that are not necessarily closely related, but can be broadly defined by large body size (larger than other raptors excluding vultures)
LINKS OPEN WHEN LAST WORKING ON THIS PAGE:
Capricorn: Jan. 20 to Feb. 16
Aquarius: Feb. 16 to March 11
Pisces: March 11 to April 18
Aries: April 18 to May 13
Taurus: May 13 to June 21
Gemini: June 21 to July 20
Cancer: July 20 to Aug. 10
Leo: Aug. 10 to Sept. 16
Virgo: Sept. 16 to Oct. 30
Libra: Oct. 30 to Nov. 23
Scorpio: Nov. 23 to Nov. 29
Ophiuchus: Nov. 29 to Dec. 17
Sagittarius: Dec. 17 to Jan. 20
- There exist here the potential for serious drift, as much as three years in one Great Cycle according to Carl Munck as discussed in Carl Munck on The Length of a Mayan Year. However, by his own estimate Carl Munck’s 325.020081 day year is from the time of the Great Pyramid building. It considerably predates the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. And nowadays the drift in the length of a year is minuscule.