- The Three Great Witnesses
- The Yuga Calendar of India
- The Maya Long Count Calendar of Mesoamerica
- Crying Wolf and December 12, 2012
- The “Race” of Siddhas in America
- The GMT Correlation Date
- Understanding the Mechanics of the Long Count Calendar
- Old End Date and Great Wayeb Page
- December 16, 2013 (the end date) versus 13 Baktuns (a Great Cycle)
- The Prophecy of Chilam Balam
- The Zero Year Problem
- The Great Wayeb of Five Years
- What is an Anti-Cipher?
- The Genealogy of Genesis
- Comet ISON on December 16, 2013
- The Coal Seams in the Appalachian Mountains are Catastrophic Deposits
- Research Notes
Astronomical Knowledge Before the Deluge
In the Deluge a civilization was destroyed the real value of which is incalculable. Hebrew tradition estimates that the population of the ante-diluvian world “amounted to millions.” Adam is said to have invented seventy languages; Cain, his son, built cities and monuments and ruled over kings. They were representatives of generations. According to Hebrew legends the Deluge and its time had already been predicted by Enoch, and even more ancient generations were said to have erected tablets with calendric and astronomical calculations predicting the catastrophe.
–Astronomical Knowledge Before the Deluge, Immanuel Velikovsky
(to respect for the ancients)
Merely opening this page sets you apart from your contemporaries
and evidences the intellectual curiosity requisite to understand
the world in which you live. I congratulate you on an important first step.
PLEASE NOTE: I have not worked on this material is several years. In fact, I basically stopped working on it years ago. It is very far from finished. Nor have I yet transferred everything about the ancient Yuga calendar to this page. Because this material is lagging so far behind my present understanding, I have yet to show that these to calendars are in perfect agreement, a fact that continues to astound me almost every time I think about it.
The Three Great Witnesses
Something unspeakably profound happened around 3100 BC. How do we know this?
I work backward 2160 orbits of Jupiter from December 21, 2018 to the start of the calendar in 23,603 BC. This places the start of the last Great Cycle at 3106 BC, which is in perfect agreement with the ancient Yuga Calendar of India. Such an agreement cannot be easily ignored.
It strongly suggests not only that orbits of Jupiter are the basic unit of measurement used in the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, but that what I call the “Great Wayeb” was in fact intended to obfuscate the actual end date
The Yuga Calendar of India
The following paper by Christian Irigaray is the most authoritative work I can find on the start date of the ancient Yuga calendar of India. O downloaded the original PDF from www.academia.edu (awaiting permission)
In this paper, the author concludes
There is no question from the descriptions offered in the Mahabharata that the date given for the event that signaled turning of the Age is April 20, 3105 BC. It is the only date that matches the planetary configuration of the texts… [emphasis added]
Alternatively, Wikipedia says:
3102 BC—According to calculations of Aryabhata (6th century), the Hindu Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BC.
The Maya Long Count Calendar of Mesoamerica
I worked for over five years developing this table. It is the centerpiece of my work, though the interpretation of what has happened in the past (the furthest right-hand column) is ongoing.calendar120220121015PM
Please note the following:
- Great Cycles: Great Cycles occur every 432 orbits of Jupiter
- Jose Solar Cycles: I cannot help but notice that are only three times when an even number of Jose solar cycles coincides with a Great Cycle, once at the start of the calendar 25,621.488 years ago, once in the middle of the calendar (Great Cycle 3.5) in 10,793 BC and this year, 2018 AD.
If the Mesoamerican (grossly misnamed “Mayan”) Long Count calendar is everything people thought it was prior to December 21, 2012, do you really believe the powers-that-be would have ever allowed this knowledge to be disseminated to the masses? That would be like throwing the key to Fort Knox on the ground in the middle of Times Square. This is some of the most guarded information in the history of mankind.
Crying Wolf and December 12, 2012
People are so gullible. You can be sure that if December 21, 2012 were the actual end date, you would have never heard about it. Such information about the end time has never been in the public domain. Do you remember the feeling that “maybe, just maybe, there’s something to this Mayan calendar thing”? Well, you’re not alone. The 400th anniversary of the Authorized King James Version of The Holy Bible was the year before 2012. That was not a coincidence, I assure you. Have you ever heard the expression “crying wolf”?
The Boy Who Cried Wolf is one of Aesop’s Fables … From it is derived the English idiom “to cry wolf”, defined as “to give a false alarm” in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable and glossed by the Oxford English Dictionary as meaning to make false claims, with the result that subsequent true claims are disbelieved. — Wikipedia
December 21, 2012 was always intended to be the biggest “crying wolf” incident in recorded history. As discussed on the№ 19. End Date and Great Wayeb page, the problem is twofold. The first is something called the “GMT correlation date” (see below). It is accurate. The problem is that 13 Baktuns is the length of a Great Cycle. It is not a date any more than saying “2012” is a date. The month and day are missing. It is more or less the same with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. And there is a serious year zero problem with 2012. The actual “end date” was December 16, 2013.
The other problem is much more subtle. The units of measurement used in the design of the Long Count calendar were deliberately obfuscated thousands of years ago when the calendar was created. This results in something I have called “The Great Wayeb” which effectively adds five years to the actual end date of December 16, 2013. To have not done so, to have openly advertised the actual units of measurement used in the design of the calendar, would be the equivalent of scrolling their most cherished secret all over the realm like so much graffiti.
Specific knowledge of the end times (what is going to happen and precisely when) is and always has been some of the most guarded information in the history of mankind. Discovering this obfuscation and its anti-cipher was one of the most magical moments in my entire life. I have been endeavoring to bring this knowledge to the public ever since. But alas the “crying wolf” ruse worked.
Even attempting to discuss the significance of this ancient calendar which once captivated the imagination of an entire world is now passé and invites ridicule, if not disdain or utter contempt.
Everyone is so sure that the whole Mayan calendar thing is sheer folly that broaching this subject is akin to urinating into the wind in the middle of Times Square on public television while reciting poetry in a very loud voice and tap dancing. It short to discuss the Long Count calendar is to make of yourself into a freak show
Hence your initial, knee-jerk reaction will be that I have conjured up the Great Wayeb. I both know and understand this because your mind has been trained to think in this way. I do not judge you, but I do most earnestly suggest you look at the entirety of this website. I am not in the business of misleading people. Rather what I have come to believe and to study in depth is that the general public is in a deep hypnotic state. I have developed this thought to the point that it is now one of my top-level menu items.
The designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar really were predicting the end of our world by earthquake, or what we would call Mega Earthquakes. And they were highly intelligent. To be dismissive towards their work because the world did not end on December 21, 2012 is the height of ignorance. The general public is surer than ever that the world will continue on its merry way indefinitely. Nothing could be further from the truth.
The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is the single greatest intellectual achievement of mankind since the end of the last world.
It is indeed everything people thought it was prior to December 21, 2012. Only now the people have fallen asleep to its reality. This was by design.
But stop and think for a minute. The actual end date of December 16, 2013 almost perfectly marks the middle of the Solar Cycle 24 “double peak” which marked the end of the Modern Maximum.
The Modern (Grand) Maximum involved some of the most intense sunspot activity in 10,000 years. This is a subject of which I am keenly aware because it peaked in April of 1958, the month before I was born.
Now how did they do that? If you are asking yourself, what makes you think this is the end of the Modern (Grand) Maximum, I decline to answer because I think it should be obvious to anyone studying the problem. Plus the ranks of those who are in consensus on this critical point are swelling with each passing day.
How could the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar have marked the end of the Modern (Grand) Maximum thousands of years in advance? When I think of this fact, the “Mayan calendar” skeptics pale in significance.
This in itself is a remarkable achievement, but something much more spectacular is about to happen, something “wonderful” as Stanley Kubrick said in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. The end of this calendar is also coordinate with the September 23, 2017 retrograde motion of Jupiter as spoken of in Revelation 12:1-2, the woman travailing in birth. Both of these are important end times markers.
Meanwhile, it must be said that the progeny of Jove, who have siphoned off trillions of U.S. taxpayer dollars to build the extensive underground tunnel systems in Denver, Colorado and throughout the Western United States of America (discussed in Virgil’s “Vault Profound” in Denver, Colorado), wonderfully succeeded in lulling us back to sleep. Wolf! Wolf! It’s time for some more CNN.
The “Race” of Siddhas in America
See also № 43. Elongated Skulls
The Mayans did not design this calendar. Neither did the Olmecs. It is the single greatest intellectual achievement of mankind since the end of the last world. The race of Siddhas (spiritual adepts) who designed it was celebrated the world over. It is indeed everything people thought it was prior to December 21, 2012.
I believe that at least some parts of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar are relics of the people who lived on earth before the birth of Venus in 9500 BC when the planet was almost completely destroyed.
How likely is it that Central and South America were the intellectual center of the ancient world? If the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is what I claim it to be, then this must of necessity be true.
Where exactly was the “great city” referred to in the following quote? And who are the “race of Siddhas“?
The Surya Siddhanta is the oldest surviving astronomical text in the Indian tradition. Some Western scholars date it to perhaps the fifth or sixth centuries A.D., though the text itself claims to represent a tradition much, much older. It explains that the earth is shaped like a ball, and states that at the very opposite side of the planet from India is a great city where the sun is rising at the same time it sets in India. In this city, the Surya Siddhanta claims, lives a race of siddhas, or advanced spiritual adepts. If you trace the globe of the earth around to the exact opposite side of India, you’ll find Mexico. Is it possible that the ancient Indians were well aware of the great sages/astronomers of Central America many centuries before Columbus discovered America?- the Mayans or Incas.
–Stephen Knapp, 108: The Significance of the Number, retrieved on 2 January 2014 [bold-red emphasis added]
Knapp’s description of these people as a “race of siddhas” deserves special attention. One possibility I do not think can be entirely discarded is that this is a reference to the elongated skulls in South America. Whoever they were, it is clear that Central and South America were not intellectual backwaters.
The GMT Correlation Date
See also: Exploring the 584286 Correlation between the Maya and European Calendars (Another, more technical name for the GMT correlation date is the 584283 correlation.)
See also: Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating
It would seem as if everything hinges on the GMT correlation date being correct.
Or does it?
The GMT correlation date is the result of many years of scholarly work to determine the Gregorian calendar date that corresponds to the first day of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Once this date is determined, then it is possible to discuss the “Mayan” calendar in terms of the English days, months, and years with which everyone is familiar. In fact, correlation dates are best thought of as an effort to translate a calendar system into another language. This subject has been exhaustively researched. Nowadays, the GMT correlation date is almost universally excepted as the best possible “translation.” Other correlation dates that have been proposed in the past are shown in the table to the left.
Now image if the GMT correlation date is wrong. The first thing you may think is that December 21, 2012 was the wrong end date. Well it was, but that is a different subject discussed on the № 19. End Date and Great Wayeb page. I will touch on it briefly here. December 21, 2018 wasn’t the wrong end date because of the GMT correlation date. It was wrong end date because no one understand the mechanics of the calendar discussed in the next section.
Maintenance Note: The following discussion is copied from the original at December 16, 2013 (the end date) versus 13 Baktuns (a Great Cycle) and included more or less verbatim in Why 2017 instead of 2018? Was 2017 the “Great Mistake”.
While it requires a rudimentary understanding of the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, to say that December 21, 2012 (the end of 13 baktuns) is the end of the calendar is roughly equivalent of saying “2012” is a date. It is not. The month and day are missing. It is more or less the same with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Only the largest cog finished turning on December 21, 2012. But the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar involves three cogs. The other two cogs, more or less equivalent to our month and day, must continue turning until they too come to an end. When they do, the date is December 16, 2013.
The difference between December 21, 2012 and December 16, 2013 is comparable to saying 1999 was the end date of the twentieth century or second millennium, whereas it would be much more accurate to say that December 31, 1999 was the end. What does “1999” mean to someone trying to figure out on what day the twentieth century or second millennium ends? It ended December 31, 1999. Do you see the difference? The exact same thing happened with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar.
Despite what you have been told, the end of the fifth Great Cycle really does mark the end of the Fifth World in which we now live (as discussed in the The Prophecy of Chilam Balam section of the № 19. End Date and Great Wayeb page).
But the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is an “end times marker.” It s not precise. Like September 23, 2017, it says to us “you are living in the end time.”
The world did not end on September 23, 2017 and it did not end on December 13, 2013 either, which was the actual end date. Nor will it end on December 16, 2018, which is the “extended” end date that was obfuscated by the designers of the calendar thousands of years ago. Think of these “end times markers” as pointing when you are giving directions to someone. You point and say “It’s over there” or “It’s down this road.” The pointing is not exact, and neither is the Long Count calendar. It’s as close as they could get, and “they” were highly intelligent beings.
This raises a question, though. If the progeny of Jove are so intent on luring us to sleep so that we do not notice all of the painfully obvious signs that we really are living in the end times, why not just assure that the correlation date is wrong? If the GMT correlation date is wrong, the actual end of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar may be years into the future. Look at the correlation date for Weitzel/Vollemaere in the table above. If those guys are right, the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar does not end for another 500 plus years from now. It’s enough to discourage any further thought on the subject.
If we live in an entirely fabricated reality, how can we know the GMT correlation date is not a subterfuge, especially when you consider that it is largely based on dates recorded by Diego de Landa, a Jesuit?
This is an important question because if the GMT correlation date is wrong, it does not matter how well you understand the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. All of your work is effectively based on a bad assumption.
I live with this thought every day. What if the GMT correlation date is wrong? It’s a scary thought, but I am confident that the date is correct. Quite frankly, on the subject of the correlation date, my thought borders on the mystical. What I know, or rather believe, is that secret societies throughout the ages do not tamper with knowledge of the end time that could possibly result in a total loss of that knowledge. Hence, England and the United States of American refused to follow the metric system. I think deliberately getting the correlation date wrong would have been on a par with switching to the metric system. They just would not do it. As can be readily seen by reading the A Very Public Countdown to 2017 section on the № 23. 2017 versus 2018 page, it is abundantly clear the progeny of Jove knew December 21, 2012 was a meaningless date. So they used it to cry wolf. Now that is something they would do.
But beyond this “sixth sense” that the progeny of Jove would not tamper with the correlation date, there is a reasonable amount of proof that it is correct. September 23, 2017 is one such proof. So is the fact that the King James version of the Holy Bible celebrated its 400 year anniversary in 2011, the year before the supposed end date of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. In fact, everything said in the A Very Public Countdown to 2017 section on the № 23. 2017 versus 2018 page, such as the fact that the Freemasons were founded in 1717, two seventeens, or 2017. And for me, and here I do not care what other think because I felt the same telepathic sense then as I felt when I first encountered ET, Comet ISON‘s perfect .51 AU isosceles triangle with Venus and Earth on December 16, 2013 was a confirmation unlike anything else. You may think I spill my guts all the time on these pages, but I actually do hold back some things. One is that I am no little freaked out that Comet 46P/Wirtanen is the first major comet to come close to earth since comet ISON. Comet ISON was on the day the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar ended. Comet 46P/Wirtanen is on the obfuscated end date. That doesn’t mean I think it is going to impact. It just weirds me out a little.
And beyond all of this rational thinking, there are the less tangible proofs that we are in fact in the end times such as those discussed on the № 15. Cultural Implosion and Matthew 24:15-18 (the last sign before the end) pages. All of these are very real to me, too. I really do believe the only people who can stomach my work must share something in common with me, the deep, abiding sense that something is wrong. That this charade of normalcy is being foisted upon us. It is a brotherhood in that sense. And such people will understand what I am saying now about the question of the GMT correlation date being correct or not.
But let me return to where I began. The actual end date of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar on December 16, 2013, almost perfectly marked the end of the Modern Maximum. Wow! If that does get your attention, then I don’t know why you are even reading my stuff. I mean this calendar was designed thousands of years ago. What did they know that we do not? How could they have possibly known the month of the last solar cycle maximum before the end of the sun’s once in a 10,000 year CME show? Whatever knowledge they possessed was highly accurate. And don’t think for a minute that knowledge was lost. Someone named that very same solar cycle “Solar Cycle 24” and the did so a few hundred years ago. The GMT correlation date is correct. The progeny of Jove really do not worry too much about us.
Understanding the Mechanics of the Long Count Calendar
The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is best thought of as a series of three interlocking gears (or cogs) all of which must advance to their end point before a major calendar period can be said to have ended.
(image from David Pratt’s “2012 and the Mayan Calendar: facts and fantasies“)
In a discussion of “How to Set the Date” in How Does the Mayan Calendar Work?, the author states
A date in the Maya calendar is specified by its position in both the Tzolkin and the Haab calendars which aligns the Sacred Round with the Vague Year creating the joint cycle called the Calendar Round, represented by two wheels rotating in different directions.
Old End Date and Great Wayeb Page
READER BEWARE: I abandoned this work long ago when I figured out no matter what I said I could not overcome the damage done by December 21, 2012 when the world was not destroyed as chicken little predicted. Finishing this page, and in particular, the work on the anti-cipher, is in the end, at least from my perspective, the most important work on this website. But speaking to an empty auditorium is no fun. So I work at the other stuff and wait for some kind of awakening or a fledging following that would be interested in seeing the proof of the Great Wayeb that adds five years to the end of December 16, 2013 (the actual “end” date). Until then, you’re on your own in this word jungle.
December 16, 2013 (the end date) versus 13 Baktuns (a Great Cycle)
What is the “end date” or last day of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar? December 21, 2012 is not the correct answer for a number of reasons discussed in this section. That is not the same thing as saying the GMT Correlation date is wrong. Allow me to repeat this critical point, to dispute an “end date” of December 21, 2012 is not the same thing as saying the GMT correlation date is wrong. In fact, I am convinced that the GMT correlation date is correct. Nevertheless, the correct calendar end date is December 16, 2013, which is “13 Ahau” expressed as 220.127.116.11.0 in the Maya language. The difference between December 21, 2012 and December 16, 2013 is a misunderstanding of how the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar works as discussed in Understanding the Mechanics of the Long Count Calendar.
The Georgia Guidestones were erected in 1980, exactly 33 years before the correct Mesoamerican Long Count calendar end date in 2013.
The problem is that 13 baktuns of 144,000 days is the length of a Great Cycle, which is a division of the calendar into fifths marking major cycles of destruction equal to 432 orbits of Jupiter. 144,000 days is 400 years of 360 days, which was the length of a year when this calendar was designed sometime before February 26th, 747 BC when Mars bumped up against Earth’s magnetosphere and changed the year to 365.2422 days. We are living at the end of the last of these five Great Cycles referred to as the Fifth World.
Maintenance Note: The following (original) discussion is included more or less verbatim in Why 2017 instead of 2018? Was 2017 the “Great Mistake”? and The GMT Correlation Date.
While it requires a rudimentary understanding of the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar (discussed in Understanding the Mechanics of the Long Count Calendar), to say that December 21, 2012 (the end of 13 baktuns) is the end of the calendar is roughly equivalent of saying “2012” is a date. It is not. The month and day are missing. It is more or less the same with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Only the largest cog finished turning on December 21, 2012. But the design of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar involves three cogs. The other two cogs, more or less equivalent to our month and day, must continue turning until they too come to an end. When they do, the date is December 16, 2013.
The difference between December 21, 2012 and December 16, 2013 is comparable to saying 1999 was the end date of the twentieth century or second millennium, whereas it would be much more accurate to say that December 31, 1999 was the end. What does “1999” mean to someone trying to figure out on what day the twentieth century or second millennium ends? It ended December 31, 1999. Do you see the difference? The exact same thing happened with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar.
I first became aware of this argument for the correct end date of December 16, 2013 while reading two obscure threads on “Godlike Productions,” which is a discussion forum for “UFOs, Conspiracy Theorists, and the Lunatic Fringe,” admittedly not a website description that readily lends itself to being a credible source for such an immensely important argument. Nevertheless, this is a singularly strong argument for a different end date than the popularly known and believed December 21, 2012. I have very carefully preserved these threads. They are exact copies, with only frivolous, irrelevant, or unsubstantial comments excluded and some very minor formatting changes for readability. This argument for a end date of December 16, 2013 is profoundly important, which is why I could not risk it being deleted from the Godlike Productions website.
The author of these posts is unknown, identified only as “Anonymous Coward” (which is a default user name) with the User ID 833688 from the United States. If anyone knows who this person is, please contact me.
Original End Date Argument (Carefully Preserved)
There are two posts. The first is dated 12/21/2009 09:12 PM. The second is dated 12/22/2012 07:29 PM.
To read the entire post, you must use the scroll bar in this window. These are highly formatted PDF documents and this is the only way I can include them.
original post (2009)
second post (2012)
The strength of this argument is also based on the belief that the end date, according to ancient Maya texts, must be 13 Ahau. This is also the argument of the more respectable Carl Calleman.
The end of the second post from 2012 references the work of Susan Lynne Schwenger and suggests that she has arrived at this very same end date using an entirely different approach, but the links provided are now dead. A simple Google search provides several links which preserve her discussion of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar end date:
This does indeed appear to be two different approaches arriving at the same conclusion, which is that the correct end date of the Mesoamerican (Mayan) Long Count calendar is actually December 16, 2013. This begs the question of why would the designers of this calendar select an end date five days before the Winter solstice? I believe this was done specifically so that we would ask this very question. Knowing the correct end date does not change the argument that not even the ancients would make such a date public. It had to be obfuscated.
Ending the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar five days before the winter solstice is an important clue that this is not in fact the actual end date. Much like five days must be aded to December 16, 2013 to arrive at the Winter Solstice, five years must also be added. Five years is the difference between 13 baktuns and 2160 orbits of Jupiter. I refer to these five years as the Great Wayeb.
Mayan shamans who are alive today have said it was always “y un poco.” They just do not know how much more time should be added. If the actual end date is somehow doubly obfuscated, an elaborate anti-cipher is required to assure people in the distant future that they are correctly interpreting the designer’s intent. After all, the future of mankind is at stake here. And the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar were most assuredly infinitely more intelligent than the Mayans. They left that anti-cipher for us.
And there is a serious year zero problem with 2012.
A baktun (properly b’ak’tun /ˈbɑːkˌtuːn/; Mayan pronunciation: [ɓakʼ ˈtun]) is 20 katun cycles of the ancient Maya Long Count Calendar. It contains 144,000 days, equal to 394.26 tropical years. The Classic period of Maya civilization occurred during the 8th and 9th baktuns of the current calendrical cycle. The current baktun started on 18.104.22.168.0 — December 21, 2012 using the GMT correlation.
J. Eric S. Thompson pointed out that it is erroneous to say that a Long Count date of, for example, 22.214.171.124.0 is in the “9th baktun”, analogous to describing the year 209 AD as in the “2nd century AD”. However, the practice is so well established among Maya epigraphers and other students of the Maya that to change it would cause more harm than its perpetuation. So the current practice of referring to the current baktun as ”baktun 13” or “thirteenth baktun” may stand, even though it is properly the fourteenth baktun. Alternatively, the first baktun could instead be referred to as the zeroeth to avoid this ambiguity. — Wikipedia
Archaeologists have found carvings in a stone staircase at the La Corona dig site in Guatemala which confirm the ‘end date’ of the Maya calendar, December 21, 2012.
A newly discovered Mayan text reveals the “end date” for the Mayan calendar, becoming only the second known document to do so. But unlike some modern people, ancient Maya did not expect the world to end on that date, researchers said.
“This text talks about ancient political history rather than prophecy,” Marcello Canuto, the director of Tulane University Middle America Research Institute, said in a statement. “This new evidence suggests that the 13 bak’tun date was an important calendrical event that would have been celebrated by the ancient Maya; however, they make no apocalyptic prophecies whatsoever regarding the date.”
An ancient Maya text has emerged from the jungles of Guatemala confirming the so-called “end date” of the Maya calendar, Dec. 21, 2012.
Considered one of the most significant hieroglyphic finds in decades, the 1,300-year-old inscription contains only the second known reference to the “end date,” but does not predict doomsday.
It is only the second known inscription which confirms this ‘end date’.
PRALC archaeologists, who in 2012 discovered a Maya text containing only the second known reference to the so-called “end date” of the Maya calendar, toda
Welcome to the wesbite for the archaeological project known by its Spanish name Proyecto Regional Arqueológico La Corona (PRALC).
2013 Apr 11
The Prophecy of Chilam Balam
This section is not yet written. There are only two sources. This needs to be much better researched and documented.
Did the Mayans walk down to the local 7-11 and buy a new Long Count calendar every 25,621.488 years, or are Maya experts who think the calendar was designed around the end date correct? This section discusses on what basis one may assume that the end of the fifth Great Cycle does in fact correspond to the end of the Fifth World.
COPIED FROM ORIGINAL GLP END DATE POST IN FOOTNOTES BELOW
Dec. 16th, 2013 (13 Ahau) 126.96.36.199.0
Katun- 144,000 days
At the end of the 13 Ahau Katun
Hunab-ku= Galactic Center
The prophecy of Chilam Balam, the singer, of Cabal-chen, 4 Mani. (below)
On <the day> 13 Ahau the katun will end in the time of the Itzá, in the time of /
Tancah , lord. There is the sign of Hunab-ku 6 on high. The raised wooden standard shall come. It shall be displayed to the world, that the world may be enlightened, lord. There has been a beginning of strife, there has been a beginning of rivalry, when the priestly man shall come to bring the sign in time to come, lord. A quarter of a league, a league he comes. You see the mut 9-bird surmounting the raised wooden standard. A new day shall dawn in the north, in the west.
Itzamná Kauil shall rise. Our lord comes, Itzá. Our elder brother comes, men of Tantun. Receive your guests, the bearded men, the men of the east, the bearers of the sign of God, lord. Good indeed is the word of God that comes to us. The day of our regeneration comes. You do not fear the world, Lord, you are the only God who created us. It is sufficient, then, that the word of God is good, lord. <He is> the guardian of our souls. He who receives him, who has truly believed, he will go to heaven with him. Nevertheless <at> the beginning were the two-day men.
Let us exalt his sign on high, let us exalt it <that we may gaze upon it today with the raised standard. Great is the discord that arises today. The First Tree of the World is restored; it is displayed to the world. This is the sign of Hunab-ku on high. Worship it, Itzá. You shall worship today his sign on high. You shall worship it furthermore with true good will, and you shall worship the true God today, lord. You shall be converted to the word of Hunab-ku, lord; it came from heaven. Oh it is he who speaks to you! Be admonished indeed, Itzá. They will correct their ways who receive him in their hearts in another katun, lord.
Believe in my word itself, I am Chilam Balam, and I have interpreted the entire message of the true God the world; it is heard in every part of the world, lord, the word of God, the Lord of heaven and earth. Very good indeed is his word in heaven, lord.
He is ruler over us; he is the true God over our souls. /
But those to whom <the word> is brought, lord: thrice weighed down is their strength, the younger brothers native to the land. Their hearts are submerged . Their hearts are dead in their carnal sins. They are frequent backsliders, the principal ones who spread , Nacxit Xuchit in the carnal sin of his companions, the two-day rulers. crookedly on their thrones; crookedly in carnal sin. Two-day men they call them. For two days their seats, their cups, their hats. They are the unrestrained lewd ones of the day, the unrestrained lewd ones of the night, the rogues of the world. They twist their necks, they wink their eyes, they slaver at the mouth, at the rulers of the land, lord. Behold, when they come, there is no truth in the words of the foreigners to the land. They tell very solemn and mysterious things, the sons of the men of Seven-deserted-buildings, the offspring of the women of Seven-deserted-buildings, lord.
Who will be the prophet, who will be the priest who shall interpret truly the word of the book?
COPIED FROM July 4, 1776, Sirius, and the Mayan Connection
Essentially, the cycle of thirteen katuns was for the Maya a kind of mundane astrology, not an astrology of the individual, but of the society and its history. In the several books of Chilam Balam, the influences of the thirteen katuns are stated, usually as a description of historical events that occurred during previous cycles. It becomes clear to the reader, however, that the Maya always expected history to repeat itself and it is also obvious that the ancient Maya were not very optimistic about their fate. Most of these “fates” are negative, but then this may have been was how life was for them. The delineations below are a composite taken from the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel and the Codex Perez and the Book of Chilam Balam of Mani.
Katun 13-Ahau: This is a time of total collapse where everything is lost. It is the time of the judgment of God. There will be epidemics and plagues and then famine. Governments will be lost to foreigners and wise men, and prophets will be lost.
—The Maya Katun Prophecies by Bruce Scofield
The Zero Year Problem
The end date is not understood in large part because it was deliberately obfuscated at its inception, when the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar was designed thousands of years ago. Living shamans have publically stated that they always knew the Long Count calendar ended in 2012 “y un poco” (and a little [more time]), only none of them knew how long “y un poco” was. The truth is that it ended on December 16, 2013 “y un poco”
The Great Wayeb of Five Years
The solstices and equinoxes were unimaginably important to the ancients. So why end the most important calendar of all time five days before the Winter Solstice? This is indeed a very important question. It practically cries out, “Add five!.” At the time the calendar was designed, the end time was some two and a half millennia into the future. Would we remember the “unlucky five days?” Would we understand the clue? Certainly we would know from their architecture the important of the equinoxes and solstices. This is what makes the end date of December 16, 2013 so appropriate as a clue to add five years also. The obfuscation of the actual end date was at once necessary (because even in their won time this was some of the most guarded information in the history of mankind), but at the same time threatened the possibility that their message would be lost in time. Something more was needed, some way of letting us know for sure the intended message was to add five years to the end date. This is what I call the anti-cipher.
The Five Unlucky Days
Morning the loss of their perfect 360 day year and not wanting to really recognize that the orbital period of Earth had changed, many ancient people simply added “five unlucky days” to the end of their existing 360 day calendars. The Mayans referred to these “unlucky five days” as the Wayeb. Over 2,000 years later, these “five unlucky days” are still an important part of Mayan culture.
The Haab’ was made up of eighteen months of twenty days each plus a period of five days (“nameless days”) at the end of the year known as Wayeb’ (or Uayeb in 16th-century orthography). The five days of Wayeb’ were thought to be a dangerous time. Foster (2002) writes, “During Wayeb, portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No boundaries prevented the ill-intending deities from causing disasters.” To ward off these evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals they practiced during Wayeb’. For example, people avoided leaving their houses and washing or combing their hair.
So you see the practice of adding five whatever to calendars is thousands of years old. The “Great Wayeb” adds five years to the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. It gave us the time to discover the truth herein disclosed.
There are living Mayan shamen who say the end of the Long Count calendar was always the end date “y un poco” (“and a little”). They just don’t know what a little means. This is where knowing the actual end date of December 16, 2013 is critically important. It was a clue the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar left behind. They lived not long after Mars bumped up against our magnetosphere and changed Earth’s orbital period.
The Importance of the No. 5 to the Design of the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar
In this image borrowed from Did Extraterrestrials Create the Maya Calendar?, the 20 day glyphs in the outermost circle of the Aztec calendar stone are divided into fifths. I had wanted to make this image myself before stumbling across this one. I am not very talented with image processing, so this one will have to do. The only thing I would change was to put the points of the star on even day boundaries. The resulting four “days” in each of the five section correspond to the four 108 cycles of Jupiter in each Great Cycle of 432 orbits of Jupiter.
YUGI CALENDAR EMPHASIZES DIVISION BY FOUR ALSO
And is it not at least possible that the fact that there are five Great Cycles is yet another “hint” that the number five is profoundly important to understanding the design of the calendar. This is also evident in the Mayan counting system in which five is represented bar a bar instead of five dots.
What is an Anti-Cipher?
A cipher is generally defined as “a secret or disguised way of writing; a code.” The Enigma machine developed by the Germans in WWII is a classic example of a cipher. Wikipedia defines a cipher as follows: “In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.” The problem with encoding or encrypting knowledge about the end times intended for people who will be alive thousands of years into the future is that the knowledge could be lost. This possibility requires what I call an “anti-cipher.”
Anti-ciphers are included in messages from the ancients that are so profoundly important for the future of mankind that they require a special means of confirming that the encoded message has been correctly interpreted.
Basically, the anti-cipher says “as difficult as this may be for you to believe, you have correctly decoded our message to you. Believe it!” Both the encoded message and its anti-cipher are hidden from view, but once discovered reinforce each other. I did not discover The First Great Anti-Cipher built into the design of the Great Pyramid of Giza, but I am the first to recognize it as an ingenious anti-cipher (one that anticipates massive earthquakes before the end time). I did discover The Second Great Anti-Cipher built into the design of the Maya Long Count calendar. It tells us when to expect the axial tilt, which is sometime around the end of 2018. These two anti-ciphers are the key to understanding our past, present, and future as an intelligent species. I recently added The Third Great Anti-Cipher to the № 81. “The Mark of the Beast” Number 666 page. See also The Capstone section of the № 22. Modern Apocalyptic Artifacts page.
The Second Great Anti-Cipher
The First Great Anti-Cipher tells us what to expect, which is an axial tilt. The Second Great Anti-Cipher is discussed in this section. It tells us when to expect it.
The designers included what I call an “anti-cipher” though, so that one could be sure the actual unit of measurement is the orbital period of Jupiter, which for us is 11.8618 years. I do not mean to suggest that the orbital period of Jupiter has changed since the calendar was designed, but the length of a year most certainly has changed since then.
So let us ignore this possibility and compute the length of a Great Cycle using days.
ONE MAYAN GREAT CYCLE:
144,000 x 13 = 1,872,000
1,872,000 ÷ 365.242 = 5,125
And now let us compute the length of the entire Mesoamerican Long Count calendar using days.
1,872,000 x 5 = 9,360,000
9,360,000 ÷ 365.2422 = 25,626
The precise number is:
Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar = 25626.830634576179861 years
Now let us compute the length of the entire Mesoamerican Long Count calendar using orbits of Jupiter:
11.8618 x 2160 = 25621.488 years
The difference is:
25626.830634576179861 – 25621.488 = 5.342634576179861 years
Instead of the 5.25 “unlucky five days” of the yearly Wayeb, it is 5.34 years or what I call the Great Wayeb. This is your anti-cipher. This is the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar telling you, “You got it. The actual unit of measurement is orbits of Jupiter and much like you need to add five days to December 16, 2013 to get to the winter solstice, you need to add five years to get to the start of the grand solar minimum that is about to rock your world.”
There is another way of looking at this anti-cipher. A baktun of 144,000 days is 400 years using the old calendar of 360 days. If you multiply those 400 years by 5.2422 the answer is 2096.88, which divided by 365.2422 is 5.741067160366464. Again, we are pointed to five. The difference is always five, the same as the five unlucky days added to the solar calendar after February 26th, 747 BC. Add five! is the message.
The Mayan who painted those crazy looking murals at the Denver International Airport (the welcome center for the extensive underground tunnel systems in Colorado and throughout the Western United States of America), knows all about the extended end date or Great Wayeb. See Leo Tanguma (DIA murals) for a discussion. I’ve read all of Leo Tanguma’s interviews. He’s a damn (good) liar. He knows. He points to the Sun, creates a plus sign with no less than the feathers of the sacred resplendent quetzal bird (ADD), and then point to an outstretch hand (FIVE) with the last of the three sixes in 666 highlighted. If you think I am imagining this, so be it. You probably think 2160 orbits of Jupiter is a figment of my imagination, too. I tell you what, if you’re right, I’ve taken “confirmation bias” (or Rorschach tests) to a whole new level. But I’m telling you, Leo Tanguma knows. I can assure you of that.
Copied from the discussion of the second Great Anto-cipher…
The wonder of it all doesn’t stop here. Using the accepted GMT correlation date, moving forward to 2018, and then backwards (as must be done in this order), the start of the fifth and last Great Cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar (3106 BC, but which is widely believed to be August 11, 3114 BC) is in perfect agreement with the start of the Yuga calendar of India. (April 20, 3105 BC). It is also close to the approximate the date Nathan Hoffman arrives at for the biblical Deluge (3000 BC) based on a new understanding of Old Testament genealogies as discussed on the biblical Deluge page. In mentioning the later, I am not waxing religious. I think those genealogies were specifically intended to communicate the approximate year of the end of the last world when Proto-Saturn exploded, the axis tilted to an unnatural 23.5°, and the world flooded.
The Genealogy of Genesis
Genesis does not pr
Shem did not live to be 600 years old
The genealogies in Genesis are being used to encode the passage of time since Proto-Saturn exploded.
Genesis 11: 10-11
These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood: and Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.
Funny thing about the genealogies in Genesis, people give birth and die on nice rounded numbers such as Shem who gives birth at 100 and dies at 600. And in the genealogy of Shem, Shelah, Peleg, and Serug all give birth at exactly 130 years old, which is just plain weird. I would be remiss if I did not point out that this is emphasizing the number 13. Of course, I am referring to the original text, not the Hebrew Masoretic text (from which Christian Bibles are translated).
Even Wikipedia becomes suspect about this.
The period from the birth of Shem’s son to Abraham’s migration to Canaan is 365 years, mirroring Enoch’s life-span of 365 years, the number of days in a year. There are 10 Patriarchs between Adam and the Flood and 10 between the Flood and Abraham
…there were exactly 20 kings in both Judah and Israel following Solomon, despite Judah lasting more than a century longer than Israel. “It seems very likely that [some of the minor kings of Israel] have served simply to make up the numbers“. —Chronology of the Bible (Wikipedia) [bold-red emphasis added]
The rededication of the Temple by Maccabean forces in 164 BCE is the starting date that must be used to work backward in time and make any practical use of these genealogies for dating events in history. Interestingly, when this Jewish account finally gets to an actual date, the numbers no longer round so nicely. The first step backward is the 374 years between the Edict of Cyrus (538 BCE) and the re-dedication of the Temple.
So what are all these begats really about?
One thing I can tell you for sure, the Jews are NOT trying to provide a “creation date” for James Ussher or any other “Young Earth” Christians
Sorry, I have little patience for these people. And I damned sure don’t care if they are offended by anything I say.
The only other major event between the rededication of the temple and “creation” is Noah, the biblical Flood. That is what is being encoded by the genealogies in Genesis. At the end of Nathan Hoffman’s amazing video in the next section, he asks the question,
Who changed theirs?
“Theirs” is a reference to the Hebrew Masoretic text (from which Christian Bibles are translated). The answer to who changed the genealogies, erasing 650 years from Genesis is not the question. The question is, Why? Why did they change the text. Hoffman thinks he knows why, and maybe he is right. But if he is right about the Masoretes changing the text so that they could prove that Christ Jesus was not the much-awaited Jewish Messiah, they had another, more subtle reason. They are hiding the actual date of the biblical Deluge. What they are doing is no different than what the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar did when they obfuscated their design and the actual end date. There is a little quirk in the text that I think is meant to send a message to the reader. Here is the relevant discussion from Wikipedia’s Chronology of the Bible:
It seems possible that the period of the Flood is not meant to be included in the count—for example, Shem, born 100 years before the Flood, “begot” his first son two years after it, which should make him 102, but Genesis 11:10–11 specifies that he is only 100, suggesting that time has been suspended.
Is this really a mistake? I don’t think so. I think it is comparable to the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar ending on December 16, 2013, five days before the Winter Solstice. I think it is designed to draw your attention to what happened in the time of Noah. By the time Nathan Hoffman gets done extending biblical Deluge back 650 years from 2350 BC, he is at 3000 BC. Not in precise agreement with the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar and the Yuga calendar of India, but close enough that I do not feel the need to try to improve upon his math.
Comet ISON on December 16, 2013
What you are looking at here is comet ISON, Venus (to the left), and Earth. This actually happened and the date was December 16, 2013, precisely the date I argue was the actual “end date” or last day of the Maya Long Count calendar (though I did not know this at the time). The distance from both Venus and Earth to Comet ISON is precisely 0.51 AU (astronomical units).
I do not remember the exact day I first saw what you can see in the above image. I was using the “Comet ISON model” developed by Solar System Scope. As I moved the model slowly back and forth through time, I noticed something that shocked me. Comet ISON, Venus, and Earth were going to form a perfect equilateral triangle (not unlike the Pythagorean tetractys) in space with sides equal to 0.51 AU. This is equivalent to the angle of the sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza. I intuitively knew at the time that this was some kind of a message, but from who? And why?
First, here is some background information from a source you can always trust. (These are real scientists.)
Comet ISON Mysteries Continue | Space News from the YouTube channel
Now before I go any further, it is important to realize that comet ISON was a rare occurrence of a comet originating from deep space. This is why there was a NASA Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC). You can click on the following image to read the article written by Matthew Knight:
I sent an email inquiry to the astronomers who created Solar System Scope. They assured me that their Comet ISON model used the very latest JPL (ephemeris) data to compute the comet’s orbital path. This is not guess work; this is a very exacting science. To be perfectly blunt, I believe that Comet ISON was deliberately set into motion and precisely guided for perhaps an extended period of time for the purpose of confirming the Mesoamerican (Mayan) Long Count calendar end date of December 16, 2013 by referencing the slope of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Sounds crazy, no?
As I said above, I first saw this back in 2012 as it was happening. What I did not know at the time was that it was occurring on the correct end date of the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar. I am not a statistician, but if such comets appear on average only once every two hundreds years or more as documented in the above article, the odds of it forming a triangle with two 0.51 AU (51 degree) sides on the last day of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar which began so many thousands of years ago must be astoundingly high.
Comet ISON was a wakeup call. A reminder that the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is everything everyone thought it was prior to December 21, 2012. For anyone listening, it is also a message that we are not alone, and never have been.
We are not alone!
The remainder of this article documents the precise timing of this event. At precisely 4:10 PM on December 15, 2013, Venus approached ISON to a distance of 0.51 AU:
Late in the same day at precisely 8:32 PM Earth approached to within 0.51 AU of Comet ISON. So by late in the day before the end of the Mayan Long Count Calendar both Earth and Venus form a triangle with ISON at the top and both planets at a distance of 0.51 AU equal to the angle of the sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Earth was the first to move outside of the 0.51 AU range of ISON on December 16, 2013 at precisely 1:16 PM
Venus stayed in the 0.51 AU range of ISON for a couple of days until December 18 at precisely 1:36 AM.
The Coal Seams in the Appalachian Mountains are Catastrophic Deposits
I grew up attending the McCoy family reunions in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. John Denver’s Take Me Home, Country Roads would reduce my mother to tears. To this day, good bluegrass music touches me in a way I can only describe as biological.
So I must include this section as a warning to those in the Appalachian Mountains that you cannot survive the coming axial tilt there. I could have told you this intuitively based on appearance, but we now have what I consider to be scientific proof that coal seams are catastrophic depositics. The implications of this for anyone contemplating survival in Appalachian Mountains is not good.
The time for thinkers has come.
— Mary Baker Eddy
Coal seams are not formed “over millions of years” (Wikipedia). The coals seams in the Appalachian Mountains are from the April 20, 3105 BC worldwide flood, which of course means the Appalachian Mountains are massively overtopped. Other than the following significant evidence that the Appalachian Mountains are overtopped, there is the issue of survivability in the aftermath of what is about to happen. If these coal seams are any indication of what happens in the Appalachian Mountains, escaping their highest elevations to find water for long term survival is going to be impossible. Assuming there is anyplace in the Appalachian Mountains that is not overtopped, you will die of thirst waiting to escape that wasteland.
What Do Floating Log Mats Have to Do with Noah’s Flood? – Dr. Steve Austin from the Is Genesis History? YouTube channel
Central and Eastern US is not survivable
In order to survive, you must be as far inland as possible away from the ocean shorelines and at the highest possible elevation. This is where you will find the progeny of Jove also.
“I believe this is the end date based on the Mayan Model as put forth by Dr. Calleman, and as presented by Ian Xel Lungold. BOWMAN has a few threads on this.”
Links Left Open When Last Working on this Subject
PYRAMIDS. Palaces. Temples. An incredible ancient Mayan capital — with suburbs of up to 60,000 houses — has been discovered after more than 1,000 years hidden away.
Mysterious lost Maya cities discovered in Guatemalan jungle
Ancient Text Confirms Mayan Calendar End Date “13 bak’tun date” There is, however, a doomsday prophecy associated with 13 Ahua, which is the actual end date. Use this!
The Difference Between The Aztec, Maya, Inca, And Olmec “The Maya were the first Mesoamerican civilization, starting around 2600 B.C.”
Owner of timeanddate.com cannot document why this was said…
FROM https://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/mayan.html (sent email for clarification)
Not a Maya Invention
The Maya didn’t invent the calendar, it was used by most cultures in pre-Columbian Central America – including the Maya – from around 2000 BCE to the 16th century. The Mayan civilization developed the calendar further and it’s still in use in some Maya communities today.
Cut from somewhere else…
I use parentheses around “Mayan” because this calendar is a much more ancient artifact. This is done for the sake of popular thought. A more correct name for this calendar is Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. My use of the term Mesoamerican Long Count calendar includes both the Mayan calendar and the Aztec calendar stone. So when you see imagery of the Aztec calendar stone on this website, do not think I am “mistaking” it for the Mayan calendar. The two calendar systems are nearly indistinguishable. That’s for a reason. They are in fact the same calendar.
The notion that Columbus “discovered” America is too preposterous to even consider. He did however provide a context for the Conquistadors and Jesuits to destroy the literary legacy of the designers of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. But why bother, you may object, because nothing happened on December 21, 2012? 2012 was crying wolf. It succeed spectacularly. Even mentioning the “Mayan” calendar invites ridicule, if not disdain. My most important work, the work that started me in earnest down this path, is on this calendar. Over five years ago, I discovered the actual unit of measurement of the calendar is orbits of Jupiter. There are 432 orbits of Jupiter in one Great Cycle. The entire calendar of five Great Cycles is (432 x 5 =) 2160 orbits of Jupiter. 432 and 216 are two of the nine sacred numbers. The nine sacred numbers manifest themselves not only in geometry, music, and space, but also in time. This is little understood. The manifestation of sacred numbers in time is as physical as the protons and electrons in an atom and is discussed in the section entitled “Sacred numbers manifest themselves in time also.” This is why these nine sacred numbers are the religion of the progeny of Jove and, interestingly enough, why there were precisely 216 above ground atomic bomb tests.
I maintain on this page a list of “Mayan” calendar pages for people doing basic research into this subject.
Access them while you can. Their owners continue to pay mistakenly thinking the relevance of their work has long since passed along with all the hysteria, intellectual pretension, and hype of the December 21, 2012 date.
8 Kiloparsecs is 26092.5 light years
For nearly a century astronomers have expended considerable effort to determine the size of the Milky Way. This effort is worthwhile because any change in the value of the distance from the Sun to the center of the Galaxy, Ro, has widespread impact on astronomy and astrophysics. All distances determined from observed radial velocities and a rotation model of the Galaxy are directly proportional to Ro. Most estimates of the gravitational and luminous mass of the Galaxy scale with Ro. Similarly, the mass and luminosity of objects within the Galaxy, such as giant molecular clouds and the non-thermal source at the Galactic center depend on Ro. On a larger scale, since extra-galactic distances are based on Galactic calibrations, the Hubble constant and Ro are interrelated. Indeed, it may be possible to use the size of the Milky Way as an extra-galactic “meter stick” and determine distances to similar spiral galaxies.
More than eighty years after Shapley published his estimate of Ro, there is a reasonable consensus as to its value. Nearly all methods of determining Ro now yield values between 7 and 9 kpc. An analysis of all methods and measurements prior to 1993 yields a best estimate for Ro of 8.0 kpc, with a standard error of about 0.5 kpc (References: Reid 1993, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 31, 345).