Sunspots and Coronal Holes

 

 

READER BEWARE: I am not even sure I will keep this page in the end. The part of coronal holes are notes from when I published an article on the subject. This page is a total mess.

 

 

Fake News (of Sunspots)


This is a placeholder for a new section that will require more research

 

No, I am not actually suggesting that NASA is faking SDO:HMI imagery, but as these recent examples make clear, the methodology used in sunspot counting has radially changed since the Little Ice Age.

 

The Active Sun from SDO: HMI Dopplergram

The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observes the Sun with many different instruments, in many different wavelengths of light. Many of these capabilities are not possible for ground-based observatories – hence the need for a space-based observing platform.

 

The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory takes a series of images every 45 seconds in a very narrow range of wavelengths in visible light of the solar photosphere…  — NASA

 

 

 

 

Outline:

Why not in the news

  • historical comparisons (last solar minimum)
  • NASA article
  • see list below

What are coronal holes?

  • EU thought vs. mainstream
  • normal at poles
  • highlight edges

Solar wind speeds

  • Solar modulation not unlike CMEs
  • slowing?
  • relationship to peer reviewed paper below
  • only when they are closer to the solar equator, do the winds they produce impact Earth (not true)

Relationship to solar dormancy

What will happen in the future

  • auroras
  • last solar wind did real damage MUST FIND video

 

Negative polarity CH HSS sparks G2 – Moderate geomagnetic storm

 

 

What are Coronal Holes?


REDUCE to ONE, SIMPLIFY:

 

Coronal holes are regions where the corona is dark. These features were discovered when X-ray telescopes were first flown above the earth’s atmosphere to reveal the structure of the corona across the solar disc. Coronal holes are associated with “open” magnetic field lines and are often found at the Sun’s poles. The high-speed solar wind is known to originate in coronal holes. – spaceweather.com

Coronal holes are regions where the sun’s corona is dark. These features were discovered when X-ray telescopes were first flown above the Earth’s atmosphere to reveal the structure of the corona across the solar disc. Coronal holes are associated with ‘open’ magnetic field lines and are often found at the sun’s poles. The high-speed solar wind is known to originate in coronal holes. –NASA

CORONAL HOLES

Coronal holes appear as dark areas in the solar corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray solar images. They appear dark because they are cooler, less dense regions than the surrounding plasma and are regions of open, unipolar magnetic fields. This open, magnetic field line structure allows the solar wind to escape more readily into space, resulting in streams of relatively fast solar wind and is often referred to as a high speed stream in the context of analysis of structures in interplanetary space.

Coronal holes can develop at any time and location on the Sun, but are more common and persistent during the years around solar minimum. The more persistent coronal holes can sometimes last through several solar rotations (27-day periods). Coronal holes are most prevalent and stable at the solar north and south poles; but these polar holes can grow and expand to lower solar latitudes. It is also possible for coronal holes to develop in isolation from the polar holes; or for an extension of a polar hole to split off and become an isolated structure. Persistent coronal holes are long-lasting sources for high speed solar wind streams. As the high speed stream interacts with the relatively slower ambient solar wind, a compression region forms, known as a co-rotating interaction region (CIR). From the perspective of a fixed observer in interplanetary space, the CIR will be seen to lead the coronal hole high speed stream (CH HSS).

The CIR can result in particle density enhancement and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength increases preceding onset of the CH HSS. As the CH HSS begins to arrive at Earth, solar wind speed and temperature increase, while particle density begins to decrease. After passage of the CIR and upon transition into the CH HSS flow, the overall IMF strength will normally begin to slowly weaken.

Generally, coronal holes located at or near the solar equator are most likely to result in any CIR passage and/or higher solar wind speeds at Earth. Strong CIRs and the faster CH HSS can impact Earth’s magnetosphere enough to cause periods of geomagnetic storming to the G1-G2 (Minor to Moderate) levels; although rarer cases of stronger storming may also occur. Geomagnetic storms are classified using a five-level NOAA Space Weather Scale. The larger and more expansive coronal holes can often be a source for high solar wind speeds that buffet Earth for many days.

Because of their potential for escalated geomagnetic activity and possible storming (G1 or higher), forecasters analyze coronal holes closely and also note them on the daily synoptic drawing. SWPC forecasters take into account any possible effects of CIR and CH HSS activity when forecasting the anticipated levels of overall planetary geomagnetic response for each 3-hour synoptic period over the next three days; as detailed in the 3-day forecast. Additionally, any predicted CIR or CH HSS influences are explained in more detail in the forecast discussion. –NOAA

What is a Coronal Hole?
Regular readers of the SWS Monthly Solar and Geophysical Summary, or those people who receive SWS Warning services, have probably seen the term “coronal hole on the Sun” used quite frequently. Not surprising because in the declining phase of solar cycles, coronal holes are the sources of many of the disturbances to the ionosphere (and HF communications) and to the geomagnetic field. But what is a coronal hole and what does one look like?

X-ray images of the Sun often show large dark regions. These are called coronal holes. They may extend from the Sun’s equator to its poles, or even in some cases, from pole to pole. Although in the 1960’s they were found in X-ray images taken by sounding rockets and detected with the Sydney Chris Cross radio telescope (but not recognised for what they were), they were first seen most clearly in images taken by astronauts on board the Skylab space station in 1973 and 1974.

The solar corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun, extending from the solar “surface” out into space. It is a region which is difficult to observe, being seen only during solar eclipses or with special equipment. A coronal hole is a large region in the corona which is less dense and is cooler than its surrounds. Such holes may appear at any time of the solar cycle but they are most common during the declining phase of the cycle.

Coronal holes occur when the Sun’s magnetic field is open to interplanetary space. Conversely, in regions where the solar magnetic fields loop back to the Sun forming arches, X-ray and UV images show bright areas. The brightest points in the images are generally at the top of the magnetic loops or arches.

The regions of open magnetic field lines are also found to be regions where the corona has a lower density than where the magnetic field lines are closed. The open configuration of the magnetic field in coronal holes allows particles to escape, and it is found that these holes are sources of high speed solar wind streams. When the particles from these streams hit the Earth they may cause geomagnetic storms.

At times of high solar activity, geomagnetic storms are generally the result of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) intersecting the Earth’s orbit, but at times of low solar activity, coronal holes are the most common source of geomagnetic storms. Because coronal holes can last for several months, it is often possible to predict the occurrence of this type of geomagnetic disturbance, as the high speed stream sweeps past the Earth with each solar rotation (like a rotating garden sprinkler).

In general, geomagnetic storms originating from coronal holes have a gradual commencement (over hours) and are not as severe as storms caused by CMEs, which usually have a sudden onset.

In the satellite image below the bright regions indicate hotter areas of the solar corona, mainly above the sunspot regions. A large dark region extends from one pole right across the solar equator and well into the other hemisphere. It is from coronal holes like this one that SWS makes forecasts of disturbances to HF communications and other Earth and space-based technology.

Although coronal holes are best observed in extreme ultraviolet or X-ray images, they can also be observed from the ground in the light of helium at a wavelength of 1083 nanometres. —Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

 

Coronal Holes

The sun is continually releasing hot gases from its surface, a steady stream of particles—mostly protons and electrons—known as the solar wind. The solar wind flows out from the sun especially strongly through coronal holes.

Ordinarily, magnetic field lines at the sun’s surface form closed loops that keep gases contained. Coronal holes are places where magnetic field lines don’t close back on themselves, but instead stick straight out into space. This leaves an open channel, out of which the solar wind can blast unobstructed.

Coronal holes make for a gusty solar wind. For example, the solar wind usually leaves the sun at speeds of around 250 miles (400 kilometers) per second, but solar wind leaving through the center of a coronal hole travels much faster, up to 500 miles (800 kilometers) per second. When these solar wind particles reach the earth—which takes two to four days, depending on their speed—modest geomagnetic storms can result. High-speed wind gusts can also disturb satellites in earth orbit. —exploratorium.edu

OTHERS…

Coronal hole  —Wikipedia

What is a coronal hole?  —sws.bom.gov.au (quoted above)

Coronal hole  —britannica.com

Coronal Holes  —swpc.noaa.gov

What is a coronal hole?  —spaceweatherlive.com   COMPARE TO May 17-18, 2016

Increasing solar activity, waning coronal hole effects  —spaceweatherlive.com

 

 

Enormous sunspots are often referred to as “black holes,” but a “coronal hole” is something else. Do not confuse the two.

 

NASA ARTICLES:

Coronal Hole on the Sun (June 5, 2012)

Massive Coronal Hole on the Sun (June 18, 2013)

Coronal Hole Front and Center (October 14, 2015)

 

 

CORONAL HOLES MAKNG THE NEWS:

Articles dates do not always correspond with actual date of coronal hole. Parenthetical dates in red are the actual date of the coronal hole reported.

 

June 14, 2013

Massive Hole In The Sun Could Lead To Dangerous Solar Flare  —offthegridnews.com

 

August 11, 2013

A Second Look at the “Hole in the Sun”: Lessons from a Media Flub  —discovermagazine.com

 

 

January 12, 2015

What’s behind the hole in the Sun?  —cosmosmagazine.com

October 15-18, 2015

Giant ‘Hole’ in Sun Is 50 Earths Wide  —space.com

How A Giant Coronal Hole In The Sun Affects Everyday Life On Earth  —techtimes.com

May 17-18, 2016

often pictured, no articles. quirky relationship with another oft pictured solar hole (inverse)

Coronal Hole in the Sun  —weather.com

May 30, 2016

NASA Spotted Huge Holes in the Sun, Are We in Trouble?

Monstrous Coronal Hole Fuels Conspiracy Theory that the Sun is Dying  —chinatopix.com

Don’t panic, but a massive black hole has appeared on the sun  —metro.co.uk

A large coronal hole indicates that our sun is dying  —disclose.tv

 

June 2, 2016

Newest ‘Hole’ in the Sun Is a Doozy —space.com

July 13-14, 2016 (July 10, 2016)

NASA Just Found a Huge Hole Growing on The Surface of The Sun  —sciencealert.com

Don’t Panic, But A Giant Hole Just Formed In The Sun  —huffingtonpost.com

September 30, 2016

Massive ‘coronal hole’ on the sun blasts Earth with solar storms  —rt.com

October 20, 2016

massive coronal holes on the sun have been happening more since 2015 2016 they are darker areas of the sun due to the lower levels of of energyand gas which cause coronal holes to appear solar particles escape or solar wind escape and create a lower density and lower temps in that area of the sun massive coronal holes are appearing more often for some mysterious reason not yet fully understood one such massive hole appeared last year march 16th 2015 it was 6 to 8pcent of the suns total surface 4 billion sqaure miles this was one of the biggest coronal holes ever recorded on the sun on may 31st 2016 2 massive coronal holes appear this time these are areas with much lower temps than anywhere else on the suns surface may 17th to 19th another coronal hole appears last october 2015 a small coronal hole appeared but it could still fit 50 earth size planets in that coronal hole they are collosall holes in size can you imagine all the solar debris that is spewed out of those coronal holes by the solar wind and how colder the areas are that are the dark coronal holes with less energy and less gases is the sun going quiet so it can recharge its nuclear fusion like cleaning out the ashes of your log fire at home before you can light another warm fire is this what or something simlar the sun is doing just like the maunder minimum or little iceage as its known the suns sunspots dissapered and solar activity was rock bottom which helped cool the northern hemespheres winters bringing hardship to many in western europe and north america the irish potato famine was said to be caused by the maunder minimum as we enter the new solar cycle 25 very soon we will see a cooling of the northern hemesphere will it go on for another 150 years or more theres alot of weight behind this theory lots of climatologists think we will enter a cooling phase by 2018 if not this winter coming —facebook.com

October 26-27, 2016 (stunning)

A massive ‘coronal hole’ on the sun is blasting Earth with solar storms that could CRIPPLE power grids —dailymail.co.uk

A Massive Hole in The Sun’s Corona Is Supercharging Aurorae Right Now —sciencealert.com

December 6, 2016

NASA Spots ‘Substantial Coronal Hole’ on Sun —newsmax.com

January 4, 2017

Aurora alert! Thanks to huge coronal hole  —earthsky.org

January 8, 2017

A new “hole” in the Sun’s atmosphere has sparked stunning displays of the northern lights here on Earth  —discovermagazine.com

January 11, 2017

The sun is ripping apart! NASA image shows vast ‘hole’ spreading across the solar surface  —dailymail.co.uk

March 1, 2017

A Hole in the Sun’s Atmosphere: The 1st Solar Views from New Satellite  —space.com

April 21, 2017 (San Francisco blackouts)

BRACE YOURSELVES Solar flare spewing from mega hole in the Sun could cause blackout mayhem  —thesun.co.uk

Upcoming solar flares could wreak havoc on Earth  —nypost.com

May 6, 2017

NASA discover hole in the Sun: Shock claim CATASTROPHIC event on Earth will follow  —dailystar.co.uk

May 18, 2017

Sun turning a ‘Death Star’-like coronal hole at Earth  —seattlepi.com

August 1, 2017 (August 1, 2017)

Coronal hole faces Earth —spaceweatherlive.com

August 4, 2017

Solar Storm Warning! Massive Coronal Hole! South Twisted Geomag Field!  —linkedin.com

October 17, 2017

Space Weather: Dangerous Coronal Hole Facing Earth  —principia-scientific.org

October 30, 2017

A massive Coronal Hole opens up on the southern area of the Sun’s atmosphere facing Earth  —thebigwobble.org

A massive Coronal Hole opens up on the southern area of the Sun’s atmosphere facing Earth  —oo2.com (FOR COMMENTS)

November 21, 2017

Stunning NASA image reveals a massive HOLE in the sun’s atmosphere that sent solar wind ‘gushing’ toward Earth  —dailymail.co.uk

Image: SDO spies broad coronal hole  —phys.org

December 1, 2017

Intense solar winds spew from a huge, dark hole in the sun’s atmosphere  —mnn.com

February 2, 2018

Coronal hole opens up on the SUN: TECH BLACKOUT warning for February 4  —express.co.uk

March 7, 2018

HUGE hole opens in Sun – and spews a stream of SOLAR WIND towards Earth  —express.co.uk

 

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS:

The Evolution and Space Weather Effects of Solar Coronal Holes

 

 

Sun related Bible references

(Joel 2:2, Joel 2:10, Joel 3:15, Zephaniah 1:15, Isaiah 13:6, 9, 10, Isaiah 24:23, Amos 5:20, Matthew 24:29, Revelation 6:12b, Revelation 8:12, Revelation 9:2, and Revelation 9:18b).

 

Unprecedented Coronal Holes


The pattern now is decreases in GCRs not attributable to solar flares and their subsequent coronal mass ejections (CME), but to enormous coronal holes. These coronal holes are historically unprecedented. They spew out a fast solar wind the same as a coronal mass ejection (CME) that causes a drop in GCRs. Here are just a few of the monster coronal holes we are seeing this solar cycle:

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To put these coronal holes in perspective, compare them to the following one featured in a 2015 NASA article on the subject:

coronal hole 2015-03-16

These relatively small coronal holes actually made the news at the time. NASA used the following caption for this photo:

This image from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory on March 16, 2015, shows two dark spots, called coronal holes. The lower coronal hole was one of the biggest observed in decades. Coronal holes are the source of the fast solar wind. [emphasis added]

Please note also that this “biggest observed in decades” coronal hole is over the south pole of the Sun. During solar minimums coronal holes over the north and south poles are normal. Now go back up and look at what is happening this year. If the March 16, 2015 south pole coronal hole is “the biggest observed in decades,” the coronal holes happening now are astoundingly huge. What you should be asking yourself is why these monstrous coronal holes are not in the news. Welcome to my world. There is nothing more newsworthy in the entire solar system right now, yet you probably are only hearing about this for the first time.

What I expect to happen next is based on the Electric Universe (read correct) explanation of how the Sun works. The solar wind released by coronal holes will begin to diminish as the pressure in the interior of the Sun which built up during the Modern Maximum is released. Enormous coronal holes will continue and get bigger, but the solar wind behind them will diminish. After this, the level of GCRs will go off the charts into unknown territory. This is not prophesy. This unprecedented increase in GCRs reaching the inner solar system started last solar minimum. I distinctly remember with awe that people were starting to wake up and ask “What is happening to our planet?” There was one major natural disaster after another.

 

Solar Wind from Coronal Holes


“three times faster”

 

March 5, 2018 FROM Space Weather, an AGU Journal

Update on the worsening particle radiation environment observed by CRaTER and implications for future human deep-space exploration

Over the last decade, the solar wind has exhibited low densities and magnetic field strengths, representing anomalous states that have never been observed during the Space Age. As a result of this remarkably weak solar activity, we have also observed the highest fluxes of cosmic rays.

This article suggests a potential of as much as 30% increase in GCR over Solar Cycle 23 maximums, which would put GCRs above 9600 (Oulu Cosmic ray Station). That is way off the charts.

 

 

Does the worsening galactic cosmic radiation environment observed by CRaTER preclude future manned deep space exploration?

Update on the worsening particle radiation environment observed by CRaTER and implications for future human deep-space exploration

 

Coronal Holes and Earthquakes


 

CORONAL HOLES AND EARTHQUAKES  —quakewatch.net

The Sun and Earthquakes: The Challenge  —spaceweathernews.com

STUDIES SUGGEST SUN TRIGGERS MASSIVE EARTHQUAKES  —spaceweathernews.com