Ice Core Drilling in Antarctica (EPICA and Vostok)
Ice cores are primarily from either Greenland or Antarctica. The Greenland ice cores do not date back nearly as far as do those from Antarctica. The oldest Greenland ice cores are estimated to date back to only the last interglacial some 123,000 years ago. Besides this lack of data, if Greenland was north-facing (as was, of course, the entire Northern Hemisphere) during the prolonged breakup of the polar configuration of the planets at the end of the last world, Greenland ice core temperature data would be highly suspect. Why? Because the historical record bears out that earth was pelted with debris when Proto-Saturn exploded. Therefore the ice core temperature data used on this page is from either the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) or the Russian Vostok Station. At this point in history, I really do not trust any weather related data from the United States of America. The Vostok Station “is by far the coldest spot on earth.” The ice cores from there cover 420,000 years. The history of ice core drilling at the Vostok Station is an interesting read.
In the 1970s the Soviet Union drilled a set of cores 500–952 m deep. These have been used to study the oxygen isotope composition of the ice, which showed that ice of the last glacial period was present below about 400 metres’ depth. Then three more holes were drilled: in 1984, Hole 3G reached a final depth of 2202 m; in 1990, Hole 4G reached a final depth of 2546 m; and in 1993 Hole 5G reached a depth of 2755 m; after a brief closure, drilling continued during the winter of 1995. In 1996 it was stopped at depth 3623 m, by the request of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research that expressed worries about possible contamination of Lake Vostok. This ice core, drilled collaboratively with the French, produced a record of past environmental conditions stretching back 420,000 years and covering four previous glacial periods. For a long time it was the only core to cover several glacial cycles; but in 2004 it was exceeded by the EPICA core which, whilst shallower, covers a longer time span. —Wikipedia
The ice cores from EPICA are estimated to go back 740,000 years spanning a total of eight glacial periods. The correspondence of this temperature data suggests that it is reliable, though limited to a relatively small geographical area of the planet. EPICA and the Vostok Station are only separated by some 560 kilometers (348 miles).
Here is a comparison of the temperature data:
The δD symbol stands for “delta deuterium,” which is a temperature proxy. The more negative the value, the lower the temperature. You can red about delta deuterium at “Ice core basics” on the AntarcticaGlaciers.org website.
The bottom chart, “δD versus depth” is difficult to read. I need to explain it because I refer back to it below in another section. Both charts are showing all of the ice core data. In other words, the red and green lines are the same on both charts. The difference is that on the bottom chart the left end of each line is stretched out and the rest of the line is progressively compressed, kind of like playing an accordion. What the bottom chart is showing you is that although the EPICA cores are estimated to be 740,000 years old compared to 420,000 years for the Vostok cores, the Europeans did not drill as deep as the Russians. In other words, the ice in the EPICA core is more or less twice as compressed as the ice in the Vostok core. It is also showing you that the deeper the ice, the more compressed it is. Carefully compare the two charts and you will see that the entire left-hand side of the bottom chart represents only about 120,000 years. This makes sense if you think about it for a minute. The snow turns into ice as a result of compaction, and the ice compresses more and more over time.
The Beginning of Our World
If you look at the “δD versus age” (top) chart above, you will see that for about 400,000 years through four different ice ages the temperature record was as regular as a heartbeat. About every 100,000 years there is an interglacial period. Clearly nothing as dramatic as a reconfiguration of the planets in the solar system happened during this time. That leaves only the recent past in which this could have happened because had the giants died over 400,000 years ago their skeletons would not be so close to the surface. In fact, had they died that long ago, there would be no giant skeletons at any depth.
Nothing will ever be the same
Earth has two pasts now. One is gone and will never return. That was the world spoken of by David Talbott in which Proto-Saturn was our primary Sun. This has profound implications for the correct interpretation of our planet’s temperature record. Most import of all is that the Milankovitch Cycles cannot be projected back in time to explain glaciation. As another example, the following quote from Wikipedia is completely meaningless when you stop to consider that 400,000 years ago Earth was part of the polar configuration. Why? Because Earth was on a completely different orbital path. So the “orbital parameters” 400,000 years ago were completely different. Everything was.
The interglacial 400 kyr ago, which is believed (from arguments about the configuration of the orbital parameters of the earth) to be an approximate analogue to the current interglacial, was quite long: 28 kyr. The Nature paper argues that if this analogue is accepted, the current climate would be expected to continue like today’s, in the absence of human influence (which it states is unlikely, given the predicted increases in greenhouse gas concentrations). —Wikipedia
Prior to the stabilization of the present configuration of the planets, which clearly did not happen until after 747 BC,
This is our world
What Interrupted the Current Interglacial?
The current interglacial is only one and a half to a little over three degrees centigrade less than the previous four interglacial periods. Can this be rightly be characterized as an “interruption” in the temperature record? Well, the difference in temperature over the past 740,000 years from the lowest recorded temperatures to the highest record temperatures is only twelve degrees centigrade. This is the very basis for my argument that Proto-Saturn and earth were not “captured” by the Sun. Even at one and a half degrees, that is 12.5% of the total temperature swing in that vast period of time, so I think the word “interruption” is reasonable.
No one knows for sure. In the Devils Hole, Nevada, paleoclimate record, the last four interglacials lasted over ~20,000 years with the warmest portion being a relatively stable period of 10,000 to 15,000 years duration. This is consistent with what is seen in the Vostok ice core from Antarctica and several records of sea level high stands. These data suggest that an equally long duration should be inferred for the current interglacial period as well. Work in progress on Devils Hole data for the period 60,000 to 5,000 years ago indicates that current interglacial temperature conditions may have already persisted for 17,000 years. Other workers have suggested that the current interglacial might last tens of thousands of years. —USGS